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新编简明英语语言学教程整理.doc


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新编简明英语语言学教程整理.doc
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定义Linguistics:Linguisticsisgenerallydefinedasthescientificstudyoflanguage.GeneralLinguistics:ThestudyoflanguageasawholeisoftencalledGenerallinguistics.language:munication.DesignFeatures:munication.Linguistics:Linguisticsisgenerallydefinedasthescientificstudyoflanguage.Itstudiesnotanyparticularlanguage,butlanguagesingeneral.Thescopeoflinguistics:Thestudyoflanguageasawholeisoftencalledgenerallinguistics.(普通语言学)Thestudyofsounds,munication,ics.(语音学)municationiscalledphonology.(音系学)Thestudyofthewayinwhichmorphemesarearrangedtoformwordsarecalledmorphology.(形态学)binedtoformsentencesiscalledsyntax(句法学)Thestudyofmeaninginlanguageiscalledsemantics.(语义学)Thestudyofmeaningincontextofuseiscalledpragmatics.(语用学)Thestudyoflanguagewithreferencetosocietyiscalledsocio-linguistics.(社会语言学)Thestudyoflanguagewithreferencetotheworkingofmindiscalledpsycho-linguistics.(心理语言学)1.宽式音标BroadtranscriptionThetranscriptionofspeechsoundswithlettersymbolsonly.2.窄式音标NarrowtranscriptionThetranscriptionofspeechsoundwithletterssymbolsandthediacritics.3.清音VoicelessWhenthevocalcordsaredrawnwideapart,lettingairgothroughwithoutcausingvibration,thesoundsproducedinsuchaconditionarecalledvoicelesssounds.4.浊音VoicingSoundsproducedwhilethevocalcordsarevibratingarecalledvoicedsounds.5.everyclosetogetherandtheairstreampassesthroughthevocaltractwithoutobstructionarecalledvowels.6.辅音ConsonantsThesoundsintheproductionofwhichthereisanobstructionoftheairstreamatsomepointofthevocaltractarecalledconsonants.7.音位PhonemeThebasicunitinphonology,it’icfeatures.8.音位变体AllophonesDifferentphoneswhichcanrepresentaphonemeindifferentenvironmentsarecalledtheallophonesofthatphoneme.9.icunitorsegment.itdoesnotnecessarilydistinguishmeaning,it’saspeechsoundweusewhenspeakingalanguage.10.ursinthesameplaceinthestrings,thetwowordsaresaidtoformaminimalpair.11.urabovethelevelofthesegmentarecalledsuprasegmentalfeatures.themainsuprasegmentalfeaturesincludestress,intonationandtone.12.plementarydistribution.13.municationandareofinteresttolinguisticstud 内容来自淘豆网www.taodocs.com转载请标明出处.