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英语语言学基础知识.doc


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英语语言学基础知识.doc
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英语语言学一、绪论语言学的定义语言学的研究范畴几对基本概念语言的定义语言的甄别特征Whatislinguistics?什么是语言学?Linguisticsisgenerallydefinedasthescientificstudyoflanguage.Itstudiesnotanyparticularlanguage,butlanguagesingeneral.语言学是对语言科学地进行研究的学科。语言学所要研究的不是某一种特定的语言,而是人类所有语言的特性。ics语音学\Phonology音系学\Morphology形态学\Syntax句法学\Semantics语义学\Pragmatics语用学\Sociolinguistics社会语言学\Psycholinguistics心理语言学\Appliedlinguistics应用语言学Prescriptivevs.descriptive规定性与描述性Descriptive:Alinguisticstudydescribesandanalyzesthelanguagepeopleactuallyuse.Prescriptive:itaimslaydownrulesfor“correct”behavior.Modernlinguisticsisdescriptive;itsinvestigationsarebasedonauthenticandmainlyspokendata.Traditionalgrammarisprescriptive;itisbasedon“high”writtenlanguage.Synchronicvs.diachronic共时性与历史性thedescriptionofalanguageatsomepointintimeisasynchronicstudythedescriptionofalanguageasitchangesthroughtimeisadiachronicstudyinmodernlinguistics,synchronicstudyseemstoenjoypriorityoverdiachronicstudy.Speechandwriting口头语与书面语Speechenjoyspriorityoverwritinginmodernlinguisticsstudyforthefollowingreasons:(1)speechprecedeswritingintermsofevolution(2)municationiscarriedoutinspeechthaninwriting(3)munity.petenceastheidealusers’knowledgeoftherulesofhislanguagePerformance:munication.Whatislanguage?什么是语言?municationCharacteristicsoflanguage:语言的特性Languageisarule-governedsystemLanguageisbasicallyvocalLanguageisarbitrary(thefactdifferentlanguageshavedifferentwordsforthesameobjectisagoodillust 内容来自淘豆网www.taodocs.com转载请标明出处.